» Archive for category: ‘policy


An illegal babies home in Uganda that was closed down in 2013

An illegal babies’ home in Uganda that was closed down in 2013

ISS CYS staff member Kristen Cheney has become embroiled in Dutch public debates about the future of foreign adoptions.

On 1 November 2016, the Netherlands’ Raad voor Strafrechtstoepassing en Jeugdbescherming (RSJ – in English, The Council for the Administration of Criminal Justice and Protection of Juveniles) issued a report (in Dutch) advising the Dutch minister of security and justice to ban all foreign adoptions. Among their reasons for coming to this conclusion were documented illegalities and unethical practices in the intercountry adoption system. The report cited scholarly literature — including Cheney’s work — that argues that intercountry adoption can lead to greater institutionalisation of children and/or disrupt the development of robust child protection systems in the children’s countries of origin (see more of Cheney’s research on the topic here).

The Netherlands’ pro-adoption lobby immediately kicked into gear: Several faculty members of the Leiden University Knowledge Centre for Adoption and Foster Care (ADOC) immediately criticised the RSJ report. Marinus (Rien) van IJzendoorn in particular questioned the quality of the research on which the RSJ report based their decision. This included one of Cheney’s articles, Addicted to Orphans: How the Global Orphan Industrial Complex Jeopardizes Local Child Protection Systems, which was co-authored with Karen Smith Rotabi, Associate Professor of Social Work at United Arab Emirates University.

Flyer announcing hunger strike by Guatemalan mothers whose children were abducted into adoption

Flyer announcing a 2009 hunger strike by Guatemalan mothers whose children were abducted into adoption

Cheney claims that the way that van IJzendoorn’s blog distorted the articles’ arguments warranted a personal response — but it also raised crucial concerns about what constitutes ‘quality research’ and the ab/uses of ‘scientific objectivity’, particularly when it comes to social justice and child protection.

See Cheney’s full rebuttal and discussion of these issues at OpenDemocracy.net. She hopes to be called to the Minister’s roundtable on the topic in early 2017.

Kristen_Cheney

Cheney

A new special issue of the journal Global Studies of Childhood on ‘Children and young people in times of conflict and change: Child rights in the Middle East and North Africa’ has just been released. The special issue, which is the culmination of a TEMPUS-funded project in which several European universities with programs in children’s rights – including ISS – collaborated with four universities in Jordan and Egypt to develop a diploma program in Public Policy and Child Rights. ISS faculty member Kristen Cheney was involved in the project, and she also served as co-editor of the special issue with Debbie Watson of Bristol University and Heba Raouf Ezzat of Cairo University.

Hind

Farahat

The special issue includes an article by ISS alumna Hind Farahat and Cheney. Entitled “A facade of democracy: Negotiating the rights of orphans in Jordan”, the piece draws on data and findings from Farahat’s MA research to argue that Jordanian orphans’ direct action during the Arab Spring did not yield its expected results due to the persistently patriarchal social and legal constrictions of their citizenship in Jordan.

Farahat graduated from ISS with a degree in Social Policy for Development and a specialization in Children & Youth Studies in 2013. She currently works as a program development officer for TechTribes as well as director of child and youth programs for the Ecumenical Studies Center in Amman.

You can view the full table of contents for the special issue on the Global Studies of Childhood website.

IMG_3816 - Version 2Guest post by Tamara Megaw, a current student in the ISS Child & Youth Studies in Development Context course and a Social Policy for Development major, responding to a visit to Porta Futuro employment project as part of the recent study trip to Rome, Italy 

On 13 February 2015, ISS Social Policy for Development students attended a panel discussion with the local government of Lazio at Porta Futuro. Porta Futuro is an employment centre offering career counseling and vocational training to young job seekers and labour recruitment services to employers. This centre boasts a new model of client-driven service provision with the goal that “every person can thrive based on their merit” (Porta Futuro, 2015). They claimed that surveying clients, designing key performance indicators to measure improvement, professionalising services and building public-private partnerships helped them deliver services with maximum value-add for clients. This new management approach may have been adopted for pragmatic reasons in a climate of austerity where public services are being pruned back. However it can be criticised for not addressing the causes of youth unemployment related to the economic and political structures (White, 2012, p.11).

The local government of Lazio also discussed the ‘Garanzia Giovani’ (Youth Guarantee) European plan to support active policies of orientation, education, training and job placement for young people who are categorised ‘Not in Education, Employment or Training’ (NEET). The government guarantees Italian young people between 15 and 29 years valid work, further education, apprenticeship or internship within four months after becoming unemployed or exiting from the formal education system (Garanzia Giovani, 2015).

Conventional Italian policies to address unemployment issues were investing more money in the economy to boost employment and passive social policies such as redundancies. The economist on the panel challenged the assumption that people will find jobs once the economy has recovered, arguing that we are facing a long recession and new type of persistent labour insecurity. The 150 billion euros needed for the type of counter-cyclical push required to ‘fix’ the economy is not available from the EU, so the Youth Guarantee is proposed as an alternative solution (Porta Futuro, 2015).

There are 400,000 NEET registered just in the Lazio region and the weakness of the policy is that the number of salaried positions is far from capable of meeting the labour supply. The ILO Report on the Youth Employment Crisis indicates deterioration in the time it takes to obtain a first job, duration of transition to a “standard” job after school or their first job and proportion of young NEET to adult unemployment rate (2012, p.17). The Youth Guarantee’s inadequate response to these problems is to provide training for young people in marketable skills while waiting for a job. This may contribute to the phenomena of “educated unemployment” (Jeffrey, 2009) that marginalises youth. The plan also promotes entrepreneurship through training young people in how to develop their own business projects. This shifts emphasis away from genuine employment generation to forcing young people “to improvise their own survival strategies” (White, 2012, p.11).

The financial crisis from 2007 in Europe has disproportionately affected young people. For example, older generations caused the Greek debt problem but the younger generation must take responsibility for repayment, while being excluded from the type of social security older people enjoyed. This generational imbalance discussed by the panel resonates as a familiar narrative in many countries with a declining welfare state. As stated by ILO “what is needed is a policy framework in which the extension of social protection reduces vulnerabilities and inequalities and improves productivity” (2012, p.28). Youth unemployment will become a growing trend if no policy measures are taken.

References

Garanzia Giovani (2015), ‘Un impresa per il tuo futuro’, Accessed 11 March 2015, http://www.garanziagiovani.gov.it/.

International Labour Office (ILO) (2012), The Youth Unemployment Crisis: Time for Action, International Labour Office, Geneva, Accessed 5 March 2015, http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/101stSession/reports/reports-submitted/WCMS_175421/lang–en/index.htm.

Jeffrey, Craig (2009), ‘Fixing Futures: Educated Unemployment through a North Indian Lens’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51:1, pp. 182–211.

Porta Futuro Panel Discussion with the local government of Lazio on ‘Garanzia Giovani’, 13 February 2015, Rome.

White, Ben (2012), ‘Agriculture and the Generation Problem: Rural Youth, Employment and the Future of Farming’, IDS Bulletin, 43:6, Oxford.

 

ALL_IN

UNICEF and UNAIDS are learning that, in the fight against AIDS, they ignore adolescents at their peril. The UN organizations have released their latest statistics on HIV/AIDS worldwide, and they show impressive progress in most areas, with significant reductions in AIDS-related deaths — including the prevention of infant infection through aggressive mother-to-child transmission prevention. There is one glaring exception however: adolescents.

Girl_infections_infographics_1 New infections among adolescents (10-19 year olds) have actually risen. AIDS is now the leading killer of adolescents in Africa and the second cause of death of adolescents worldwide. Girls and young women are disproportionately affected, comprising the majority (64%) of new infections. Adolescents also face greater challenges of access and adherence to treatment than other age groups. In fact, many are not even aware that they are living with HIV (UNICEF, 2014).

In response to this glaring exception, UNAIDS and UNICEF launched the All In to End Adolescent AIDS Initiative this week in Kenya. With the support of UNFPA, WHO, PEPFAR, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the MTV Staying Alive Foundation and various youth movements, All In intends to provide ‘a new platform for action to drive better results for adolescents by encouraging strategic changes in policy and engaging more young people in the effort’ (UNAIDS, 2015).

According to UNAIDS, ‘All In focuses on four key action areas: engaging, mobilizing and empowering adolescents as leaders and actors of social change; improving data collection to better inform programming; encouraging innovative approaches to reach adolescents with essential HIV services adapted to their needs; and placing adolescent HIV firmly on political agendas to spur concrete action and mobilize resources’ (ibid.).

While All In shows promise for reversing these trends by involving more young people directly in the effort, it remains to be seen to what extent it will lead to concrete gains, either in HIV reduction amongst adolescents or greater youth participation in such initiatives (after all, UNICEF has made these points before). The initiative’s website contains few details. It is unclear, for example, what role essential support like comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) will play in All In Initiatives, despite the vast majority becoming infected through sexual transmission. madnkts

Further, All In pledges to engage young people, but with All In calling on ‘national leaders to coordinate, support and lead assessments of existing programmes and expand partnerships for innovation between the public and private sectors’ (ibid. ), young people’s participation may easily be hijacked or usurped by others’ interests.

The fight against HIV/AIDS clearly needs adolescents, and adolescents need to take a greater place in research and policymaking. To do this, they need support to receive and even redesign CSE (see our other recent blogposts on CSE) and other capacity building to help them make the most of participatory opportunities, and to lessen the impact of HIV/AIDS on their lives. ISS is doing this through, for example, projects that involve young people directly in research about their sexual and reproductive health needs to improve CSE delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, The Dutch Children Affected by AIDS (CABA) Working Group, of which ISS is now a part, will be working to ensure that adolescents are prominently involved in the AIDS 2018 conference to be held in Amsterdam.

Posted by Kristen Cheney

downloadIn the coming weeks we will be featuring a number of contributions written by course participants of the MA elective ‘ISS-4235 Young People and Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy‘ (for an early post in this series see HERE).

There are many views on minimum wage regulations for young people and especially on youth rates. The ILO encourages its member-states to implement minimum wage regulations for reducing poverty and ensuring social protection (ILO 2013, p: 35). However some countries have a specific minimum wage for young people, a so-called youth rate, next to a general minimum wage. The Netherlands has taken this exercise yet another step further and has minimum wage regulations by age for young people aged 15 through to 22. It is only at age 23 that young people qualify for the adult-level minimum wage.

In the Netherlands the minimum wage for 15 years is € 2.57 per hour (gross, and calculated on the basis of a 40 hrs workweek) and there is 15%-17% increase for subsequent ages till 23. The minimum wage for adults (23 years and older) stands at € 8.57 per hour – more than three times the minimum wage of 15 year olds.

The Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs & Employment justifies this age-based minimum wage because it considers young workers less trained and experienced; their needs are less than those of adults; and because it is feared that high earnings would make work relatively more attractive compared to education (lecture notes ISS-4234, minimum (w)age session; lecturer Karin Astrid Siegmann).

Age-based minimum wage regulations seem favourable to employers and business persons as it allows them to legally exploit the productivity of young people at relatively low costs. This was illuminated in our visit to Albert Heijn, a large Dutch retailer.

We were told that more than 75% of the employees were employed on the basis of short term, fixed contracts and more than 40% of them belong to the age group of 15-18 years. It is noteworthy that various forms of work were done by adults as well as young people (e.g. work at check-out counters), and that there was no age difference in expectations about the performance of this work. Hence, by employing young people instead of adults Albert Heijn appears to cut its salary expenses with no loss of productivity. A situation made possible by Dutch age-based minimum wage regulations.

FNV, a Dutch trade union, has argued against age-based minimum wages as it views it a form of discrimination. It argues that when young people reach the age of majority (18 in the Netherlands) they should qualify for the adult-based minimum wage. Employer’s organizations in Netherlands argue that such a proposal world lead to an increase in youth unemployment. Such a position appears indeed supported by Canadian research on the abolishment of a youth rate, it found ‘some evidence that abolishing…youth rates significantly lowered employment and work hours of 15- to 16-year-olds’. But it also notes cautiously that there are also ‘questions regarding the interpretations of the results’ (Shannon 2011, p: 629).

Coming from India, I strongly feel that there should be protective tools regulating the labour market especially the employment of young people. This includes minimum wages and decent work conditions. Hence, while there is reason to be critical of age-based minimum wage regulations, not having any (effective) minimum wage for young people might still be a worse situation.

Guest contribution by Pranab K. Chanda (ISS MA in Development Studies, major Social Policy for Development)

 

Children & Money

Category: policy| Uncategorized

11 Mar 2014

imagesThis week (10-17 March) is declared ‘Global Money Week‘ by the organisation ‘Child and Youth Finance International‘.

The organisation claims that about 3 million children and over 400 organisations in more than 100 countries will get involved in a range of activities and programmes related to the ‘Global Money Week’, all with the aim of:

empowering young people and getting them involved to reshape finance and their own future

In the Netherlands, the week is linked to a Dutch Ministry of Finance stimulated public-partnership called ‘More knowledgeable about money’ (Wijzer in geldzaken) which includes the component ‘financial education‘ for children.

Why this concern about children and money?

A research report (2013) by the Dutch National Institute for Family Finance Information found that 45% of the 5-year olds in the Netherlands receive pocket money (0,50 Euro per week on average) and 84% of the 11 and 12 year olds (2-3Euro per week). 45% of the surveyed children (all of primary school age; 5-12 year old) would occasionally do tasks for money (such as gardening, tidying, washing cars, etc). 91% of the children receive money through ways other than work or pocket money (e.g. as gifts on particular occasions). 47% of the children have a bank account in their own name and out of these children 45% have their own bank card.

These figures suggests that money takes an important presence in the lives of Dutch primary school children and that they are already engaged in a range of financial institutions and transactions. In that light, a focus on financial education may indeed be appropriated.

However, such figures tell only part of the story. A further story is told by taking a look at the ‘partners‘ behind the Dutch part of the ‘money week’. The presence of banks and insurance companies is striking. The story behind Child and Youth Finance International appears similar. Although they keep their ‘partners and stakeholders‘ elusively hidden behind a search bar, punching in the search term ‘bank’ yields indeed numerous hits. Furthermore, the Citi Foundation is of its main partners and seems to have a considerable influence on the work of Child and Youth Finance International. This evident from the idea of ‘financial inclusion’, which features prominently on the Citi Foundation webpage, and is also embraced as a central principle by Child and Youth Finance International. The latter uses the following definition of financial inclusion in one of their research publications (Sherraden, M. S. and D. Ansong (2013). Conceptual Development of the CYFI Model of Children and Youth as Economic Citizens. St. Louis, MO, Washington University, Center for Social Development (CSD)):

‘a state in which all people who can use them have access to a suite of quality financial services, provided at affordable prices, in a convenient manner, and with dignity for the clients’ (p8)

It continues to elaborate that ‘at a minimum, this includes saving, credit, insurance and payments to facilitate economic transactions, manage day-to-day resources, improve quality of life, protect against vulnerability, make productivity-enhancing investments, leverage assets, and build economic citizenship‘.

Financial inclusion appears, for a good part, to be about bringing children into the realm of financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies. Indeed, the above quoted research report talks in this vain about ‘unbanked populations’ and identifies young people as an important segment of the ‘unbanked’.

The Global Money Week, thus, seems to be as much a response to a reality in which money indeed takes an important presence in many children’s lives as it is a form of capitalist expansion turning yet unbanked children into a banked population in the name of financial inclusion.

posted by Roy Huijsmans

 

Children & Youth Studies students from the Social Policy for Development and Social Justice Perspectives majors took a study visit to the Hague Conference on Private International Law on Friday, 7 February. The Hague Conference is the oldest international organization in The Hague (established in 1893), and the only one with a legislative function, which is to work toward the “progressive unification of the rules of private international law”. This means creating and enforcing conventions that address legal problems arising between individuals and companies in situations that concern more than one State.

hcchStudents were particularly interested in their conventions concerning child protection. These are:

• 1980 Child Abduction Convention

• 1993 Intercountry Adoption Convention

• 1996 Child Protection Convention

• 2007 Child Support Convention and Protocol

Hague Conference legal officers generously gave of their time to discuss the contents, promulgation, and implementation processes of these international treaties, most of which draw their mandate from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. They discussed the challenges of universal implementation with ISS students, noting in particular their efforts to bring more African states on board. Currently, only 5 African countries are member states.

Irene Nyamu, a Social Policy for Development student from Kenya, said, “The visit to Hague Conference was a great eye opener for me as a child rights and protection activist… I gained a perspective on the value the Hague Conference has on overall social policy.

Kenya [has] ratified the 1993 Convention on Intercountry Adoption… I now fully understand what this means, how it is connected to the UNCRC, and the fact that inter-country adoption is much more regulated in Kenya.”

The Hague Conference regularly holds Special Commissions for each Convention. For example, the next Special Commission of the 1993 Intercountry Adoption Convention is scheduled for 2015. The Hague Conference is also working on a report based on survey information gathered from member States in regards to international surrogacy arrangements. Based on that report, member States will determine whether to promulgate a new Convention on international surrogacy.

To help inform both processes, ISS will be hosting an invitational international forum on intercountry adoption and global surrogacy to bring together experts – scholars, policymakers, and activists – from around the world. The forum, to be held in August, will produce reports of the proceedings that may then be used by the Hague Conference to strengthen implementation of their conventions on adoption and surrogacy.

Posted by Kristen Cheney

india

A declining Child Sex Ratio constitutes a violation of the fundamental rights of girl-children.

This includes the right to survival, protection, development and participation of children, all key principles of the UN Convention on the Right of the Child to which India is a signatory. Social pressure on women and couples for producing sons combined with easy access to technology for sex-detection has created a market for sex-selection, at times further stimulated by medical professionals.

Commitment is key to improving child sex ratio. And this is deliberately deviated by State parties, Society, Community and Family as well. Presently, the all-India child sex ratio is 914:1000 (girls:boys), a sorry state of affairs, and in need of immediate intervention. The Ministry of Women and Child Development is now planning to develop a national plan to combat the draconian disease- the attitude against girl child. It is interesting to note that some States in India are far ahead in implementing schemes to address girl child issues. Some of the State initiatives are given below:

KARNATAKA: Bhagyalakshmi Scheme :  To promote the birth of girl children among families identified as below poverty line and to raise the status of girl child thereby raising the status of the society, Karnataka has implemented financial assistance through Bhagyalakshmi scheme for girl children born in the BPL families from 2006-07 subject to fulfilling certain conditions.

ANDHRA PRADESH: Indiramma Amrutha Hastham (IAH) scheme, a boon to pregnant women has been launched. It focuses on 20 key interventions and its monitoring.

DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELI, SILVASSA: Save the Girl Child scheme, a child protection scheme is under implementation and money is deposited on the girl child’s name, under Profit Plus Policy of Life Insurance Corporation for 18 years and on maturity the beneficiary would receive amount of Rs.3.00 lacks.

save the girl

DAMAN AND DIU: Dikri Development Scheme (DDS) : To save the girl child and increase sex ratio, this scheme was implemented for domicile of UT of Daman. It is proposed to be accelerated & propagated in the community. Incentives to Girl students for pursuing professional courses at graduate & post graduate degrees. Cash incentives are provided to parents of tribal girl students. Cash award to meritious SC/ST Girl Students in Education. Cycles have been distributed to girls.

GUJARAT: The Mukhbir Yojana, which was launched in January to intensify the fight against female foeticide, has now started paying dividends. Decoy/ Sting Operations is carried out in the State. And mandatory quarterly reporting is monitored with regard to transactions.

RAJASTHAN: Rajasthan State Policy for the Girl Child, 2013 is an unique and first time effort and in operation in the state.  The Policy envisions “The girl child shall have an enabling environment for her survival, growth, development, protection, empowerment and participation, for exercising her right to life with dignity and without discrimination.”

ASSAM: Majoni scheme is launched for girl child. Reinforcement of PC-PNDT (Pre conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Technique) act in the State. Initiatives undertaken to Improve birth registration: this will facilitate to estimate the sex ratio at birth: a critical indicator to monitor progress. sessions of the Gram Sabha were also held to discuss and develop plans to address the declining CSR.

NAGALAND: ARSH program is under implementation in the state to reduce malnutrition and anemia of girl child & women, and address gender discrimination in access to health care services. Top priority is given to the health of mother and child through the RCH programme.

SIKKIM: Mukhya Mantri Sishu Suraksha Yojana Avam Sutkeri Sahayoj Yojana for the pregnant women is launched. Equal property rights for daughters along with sons have also been enforced in the State. In order to improve the service delivery by the ASHA, Sikkim has become the first state in the country to give a monthly honorarium of Rs. 3,000/- besides the usual incentives entitled to them.

BIHAR: Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana. It is also promoting Support Based Schemes in Education like Mukhyamantri Balika Poshak Yojana, Mukhyamantri Paribhraman Yojana, Mukhyamantri Balika Protsahan Yojana, Hunar Scheme, Meena Manch, Sabla etc. To prevent social evils Mukhyamantri Kanya Vivah Yojna to improve child sex ratio is promoted.

HARYANA: Jhajjar is the first district to implement Active tracker across India. Active Tracker has been developed. As part of this initiative, login ids were provided to all sonography centers in the district and it was mandated that they register online. All centers were required to fill “Form A” in online. Simultaneously individual logins are provided to district authorities so that concerned authorities can view reports on their personalized dashboards. www.merigudia.com is launched.

PUNJAB: Bebe Nanki Laadli Beti Kalyan as proposed under 13th Finance Commission is under implementation.. The main objective of the scheme is to curb female feticide and to provide better education to girls. Along with this, financial assistance under Dhanalakshmi will be provided to the families from time to time so that they are not burdened with the birth of the girl child.

Guest contribution by Manorama Dei. Manorama Dei is an ISS Alumni from India (MA Governance & Democracy 2007/2008, with an optional course in Children and Youth Studies). She is currently working as Senior Research Officer at the National Mission for Empowerment  Women,  Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India where she works on holistic empowerment of women, especially from the marginalized groups and sections of Indian society. http://www.nmew.gov.in/

posted by Roy Huijsmans

The UK based ‘Right to Education Project’ has long provided global comparative data on the age at which children may be employed, married and be taken to court. Its 2004 report is available HERE, and an updated data-sheet covering the 2010-2013 reporting period is available HERE.

The North America based ‘World Policy Analysis Center‘ has now launched a similar global database. The database covers much of the ground already mapped by the Right to Education Project as it includes data on education, work and marriage. Yet, it also provides data on protection, basic needs and special needs and includes a wider range of variables, such as, for example, a global overview of the minimum educational requirements for teachers in lower secondary education.

 

posted by Roy Huijsmans

Drawing on a 2012 SCP publication on poverty in the Netherlands, the Dutch ‘Children’s Ombudsman’ has now launched an online platform inviting children (especially) and adults to share their experiences of poverty in the Netherlands by answering a list of questions.

The aim of this initiative is to learn more about child poverty in the Netherlands since 2011 statistics show that nearly one in ten children (0-17 years) in the Netherlands live in poverty, and that the total number of children living in poverty has grown with 57,000 children (to a total of 359,000) from 2010 to 2011. Importantly, the statistics use the household as the unit of analysis which excludes the possibility of ‘child poverty’ in households above the income thresshold. This thresshold is Euro 960 per month for a single adult, which is adjusted for household composition (a distinction is made between a two-parent and single-parent households and between childless and households with children (up to three)). It also assumes that ‘poverty’ is shared equally among all members of the household – something which, of course, has long been contested in development studies.

Despite the valid concern about an apparent rise in poverty in the Netherlands, figures are still below 1994 when 8.6% of the Dutch population was considered poor (7.6% in 2011). The 2011 figures show, however, interesting generational variation:

Children are overrepresented in poverty statistics, people in their fifties are underrepresented, and those over 65 have the lowest risk of poverty.

When it comes to children (0-17) specifically some important patterns are identified:

One third of the children living in poverty are from ‘non-Dutch decent’. Poverty is considerably higher in single-parent households than in two-parent households and also more prominent in households with three or more children than in households with fewer children. Furthermore, children aged 8-10 are at greater risk of living in poverty than older or younger children. This said to be so since single-parent households are more common when children are 8-10 than at a younger age.

The online questionnaires launched by the Children’s Ombudsman pay particular attention to children’s subjective experiences of poverty as it includes questions like ‘how do you notice there is little money in your family?’ Attention to children’s subjective experiences of poverty has become quite common in development studies (see for example HERE), yet remains rare in the so-called developed world. Despite this useful innovation it remains to be seen of course whether children living in poverty (especially!) will actually be in a position to access this online survey and/or will know about it before it closes again in three weeks from now…

 

 


International Institute of Social Studies

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